Jetpack support says it is possibly a PHP issue since GoDaddy's is out of date. See: https://ca.godaddy.com/community/Managed-WordPress-Hosting/Wordpress-Managed-PHP-Version/td-p/3292
Turns out it's working fine now. I gave up on Jetpack and deleted it. I then loaded Akismet spam protection and got that working since I decided to turn comments back on. Then, just for the heck of it, I tried Jetpack again and it installed, connected and is now working as it should. I have access to the dashboard, settings, everything. I don't know what version of PHP my site is on; I can't seem to find that information. Odd behavior.
I followed your steps and mine is working now too! However, Akismet is asking me to pay for an API key. I can't use the personal option for I have ads on my site.
Here's the PHP version info from Jetpack support:
"your PHP appears to be on version 5.6.30. The latest update is 7.2.0"